Leptin is not only a messenger to the brain, but it also has metabolic effects on organs, like the muscle, liver, and pancreas. In healthy individuals, leptin will inhibit insulin secretion and have anti-inflammatory effects on the liver and fatty tissue.
In the case of leptin resistance, however, communication with these peripheral tissues is not happening. When this happens, insulin resistance and Type II diabetes become much more likely.
How to manage it
The best way to combat insulin resistance is by opting for whole foods and limiting processed foods or added sugars, as well as ensuring you are getting adequate fiber in your diet. Adults should aim to get about 35 grams of fiber each day in the form of vegetables, whole grains, and legumes.
Moderate exercise can improve insulin resistance significantly, along with leptin resistance. The ideal option is heart rate variability exercise (think: aerobic exercises) to help increase adiponectin: a protein involved in regulating blood glucose in fatty tissues, which lowers leptin levels in patients with insulin resistance.